In nature; Ozone formation occurs when the ultraviolet rays from the sun break down the oxygen in the atmosphere and turn it into ozone molecules. Technologically; It is obtained by the breakdown of oxygen in the air through the help of electric energy or from pure oxygen.

Plate type generators
CD type generators
UV type lamps

Ozone gas is the only natural disinfectant with commercial use. Once the ozone is completed, it always transforms into its raw material, oxygen. Ozone gas is inversely proportional to temperature. It is a gas with very high oxidation power and one of the strongest known disinfectants. The high oxidation force plays a very active role in the destruction of ozone microorganisms. Ozone disinfection, the germ disintegrates the cell membrane and the microbes melt away. Ozone gas water use also provides disinfection for about 4-10 minutes. Approximately 0.1-0.5 mg / l ozone kills almost all microorganisms. Ozone has 3100 times stronger disinfection effect than chlorine under the same conditions. Unstable structure of the ozone gas, disinfection process, as a result of 30 minutes in the open atmosphere, in closed packaging, 8-12 hours, without leaving any residual residues to the raw material to be converted into oxygen. In a report published by the World Health Organization in 1979, ozone disinfection was proposed.

Ozone gas into the class of reliable gases (GRAS) in 1997, the use of ozone in food began to become widespread. In the Turkish Food Codex, HACCP (Hazard Analysis in Critical Control Points) has become mandatory for safe food production. Thanks to its very strong oxidation and highly effective disinfection, it is used as a microbicide in treatment plants providing drinking water worldwide. High oxidation forces cause ozone to play a very effective role in the destruction of bacteria. In addition, ozone, due to the unstable structure of oxygen in the air is obtained by breaking down after completing the task of disinfection is always converted to oxygen, the raw material. The only disinfectant that does not leave residues and residues after disinfection makes Ozone gas a unique disinfectant.

Ozone Formation Mechanism

The ozone in the stratosphere layer in the atmosphere is formed on the one hand due to the effect of ultraviolet radiation and it disappears from the other side. The air mass in the stratosphere is continuously affected by ultraviolet radiation from the sun. At this stage, almost all of the ultraviolet-B (UV-B) rays, which constitute a great danger for the creatures on the ground, are absorbed by ozone in the stratosphere. This process occurs as O3 + h υ +> O2 + O reaction. (λ = Wavelength <243 nm) As a result of this reaction, the ozone molecule breaks down to reveal an oxygen molecule and an oxygen atom. Wherein h is the Plank constant; υ is the frequency of UV-B rays. The mechanism of formation of the ozone molecule The new free oxygen molecule formed by the above reaction reacts with the oxygen atom in the ozone layer and forms the ozone molecule (O3) again. O2 + O + M iy> O3 + M where M is the third molecule that carries the energy released during the reaction

Ozone Destruction Mechanism

When an ozone molecule (O3) is exposed to ultraviolet radiation, it is broken down into O2 and O. Atomic and molecular oxygen during kinetic energy gains kinetic energy to increase heat and this causes an increase in atmospheric temperature. Ozone production is provided by ultraviolet radiation with shorter wavelength than 240 nm. Ozone disintegration occurs when a long wavelength greater than 320 nm and short wavelength ultraviolet radiation in the range of 400 to 700 nm is exposed. In the formation of the ozone production and fragmentation zone, longer wavelength photons are easier to process into the atmosphere. Even if an ozone molecule absorbs low-energy ultraviolet radiation, it can be broken down into an oxygen molecule and a free oxygen atom.

The main chemical substances that destroy ozone are hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine and bromine. As X, HOx, ClOx, NOx or BrOx, the overall reaction that destroys the ozone if one of its roots is taken X + O3 eden-> XO + O2 XO + O x-> X + O2 x O + O3 -> Can be displayed as O2 + O2. Note that a single catalyst can destroy thousands of ozone. Particularly, the catalytic effect of ClOx and BrOx plays a fundamental role in the destruction of ozone in the lower stratosphere. Br O + ClO ————–-> Br + Cl + O2 Br + O3 ——-> BrO + O2 Cl + O3 ——-> ClO + O2 + 2O3 ——> 3O2 Chlorine Mechanism of the (Cl) atom disintegrating and destroying the ozone molecule

Ozone Disposal Chemicals

The main chemical compounds that destroy ozone are chlorofluorocarbons (CFC2), carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform, methane and nitrous oxide (Table 2). Their usage places, their share in the total and their life in the atmosphere are given in the table below.

Table: Major chemical compounds that destroy ozone.
Name Formula Place of Use Percentage (%) Share Life (Year)
Halon-1301 CBrF3 Fire Extinguishers 4 110
Methyl chloroform CH3CCl33 Solvents 5 8
Carbon tetrachloride CCl4 Solvents 8 67
CFC-113 C2Cl3F3 Solvents 12 90
CFC-11 CCl3F Aerosols, Foams, Coolers 26 74
CFC-12 CCl2F2 Aerosols, Foams, Coolers, Air Conditioners 45 111

The thinning of the ozone layer means that more UV radiation reaches the surface of the earth. For this reason, ozone absorbs most of the UV-B radiation and protects the biosphere and plays a vital role in the environment in which we live. All theoretical and empirical studies show that the release of CFCs and halons into the atmosphere causes more extinction of the ozone layer, especially during the spring, and the emergence of the Antarctic ozone hole.